In Glorious Technicolor: How Pinewood Restored British History with PFClean
Behind the iconic gates of the world-famous Pinewood Studios lies its media preservation, restoration and archiving facility. With PFClean in its arsenal, Pinewood’s team of experts have restored many historic gems to their former glory, some of which include Hell Drivers, A Canterbury Tale, The Cook, The Thief, His Wife & Her Lover, plus last year’s 2K restoration of Scott of the Antarctic.
Scott of the Antarctic is a piece of British History; the 1948 film recreates Robert Falcon Scott’s iconic yet ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition and his quest to be the first to reach the South Pole. But it’s not only this film’s storyline that holds such historical significance. What’s more is the format it was originally filmed on: Three-strip Technicolor.
As the technology behind three-strip Technicolor is practically extinct, this rare format has become irreplaceable, and the need to digitise its deteriorating footage, even greater. The format produces equally unique defects over time that require a flexible and intelligent application to efficiently restore them, whilst retaining the film’s integrity. That’s why Pinewood use PFClean.
We spoke with Pinewood’s Film Archive Restoration Manager, Jon Mann, who tells us how they used PFClean to restore the three-strip Technicolor footage in order to reveal Scott of the Antarctic’s true colours.
Returning to the Dark Side: The Original Negative
In 2016 Pinewood were approached by Studio Canal with the original 1948 footage of Scott of the Antarctic. “Studio Canal wanted the best restoration from the original negative,” Jon explains. “Previous restorations had been made from dupes/prints that probably originated from an inferior intermediate made from the YCM elements.”
“Having previous experience of recombining YCMs, (Psychomania for the BFI) we decided to go back to the original materials.” says Jon.
Not Always Easy as One, Two, Three
The three-strip Technicolor process, popular in commercial use from the 1930s to mid-1950s, used three strips of film negative which ran through a camera using a beam-splitting prism in order to produce Red, Green and Blue records, before then being exposed to Yellow, Cyan and Magenta dyes to create the full colour spectrum. Once combined, the three strips of film produced a vivid coloured image, instantly recognisable as Technicolor film.
For the restoration of Scott of the Antarctic, a 21st century process needed to be adopted. Pinewood’s first task was to scan the film, however, due to the sheer quantity of film which came with the three-strip Technicolor, this was not a fast process. The Y, C and M elements amounted to 36 reels of film, which took a total of 4 solid weeks (24 hours a day) to scan the entirety of the footage. Once the film scanning was finally complete, Pinewood went about digitally combining the elements to create the coloured image.
“Using a bespoke programme written for us by Filmlight, we recombined the scanned Yellow, Cyan and Magenta DPX files” explains Jon, “we then started the process of digitally cleaning the film.”
With PFClean at the core of their restoration pipeline, Pinewood could tackle the issues in the footage head-on. Thanks to PFClean’s state of the art technology, and combination of automated and manual tools, the restoration could be performed efficiently whilst retaining the integrity of the film.
Cleaning Up a Storm
The three-strip Technicolor film came with issues as unique as the format itself, as Jon describes, “Many of the shots had a halo effect; Red, Green or Blue outlines from the recombining of the three-strip colour.” The “halo effect” occurred when the images did not line up precisely in the digital realign process. “This is where the PFClean re-align tool came into its own,” notes Jon.
The team then set about removing the sparkle and dirt that was found in Scott of the Antarctic, which due to the three elements in the footage, produced a colourful snowstorm effect.
One of the more unique manifestations of three-strip Technicolor is caused due by the different rate at which each Y, C and M element degrades. As a result, signs of heavy flickering were evident in the footage, but luckily as Jon explains, “PFClean’s de-flicker tool removed and smoothed this problem,” with ease.
“In addition,” Jon says, “many of the frames had rips and tears which we used the extensive PFClean tool box to repair and clean.”
As well as the extensive range of restoration tools, PFClean’s flexibility and non-destructive workflow allowed the software to integrate seamlessly into Pinewood’s restoration pipeline.
“PFClean is one of the vital pieces of software we use in our restorations as it allows us to work in conjunction with our other software platforms including, DaVinci, Baselight and DVS Clipster for the final deliveries,” notes Jon.
PFClean’s non-destructive nature is crucial for Pinewood, allowing them to meet the client’s requirements without jeopardising any of their previous hard work, as Jon explains, “This is one of the main benefits of using PFClean as we can always go back to projects and work on them right up to the day of delivery. We can make fixes and additional cleaning if requested by our clients whilst working between other projects.”
No Cold Feet with PFClean
Restoring three-strip Technicolor is certainly no walk in the park, but fortunately for Pinewood there were no cold feet when it came to restoring Scott of the Antarctic with PFClean.
“We have used and tested various restoration platforms over the years but I have found that PFClean always accomplishes superior results,” concludes Jon, “it also has one of the best re-alignment tools particularly for the registration errors that we encounter with three-strip titles.”
With help from PFClean’s extensive toolset, Pinewood’s team of experts restored history, not only uncovering the story behind Robert Scott’s iconic Antarctic expedition, but by also revealing the true magic of three-strip Technicolor.
Check out Pinewood’s restoration team in action, and see how they used PFClean to restore Scott of the Antarctic:
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